# ChebyshevUnderSampler¶

Under-sampling for imbalanced regression using Chebyshev's inequality.

Chebyshev's inequality can be used to define the probability of target observations being frequent values (w.r.t. the distribution mean).

Let $$Y$$ be a random variable with finite expected value $$\overline{y}$$ and non-zero variance $$\sigma^2$$. For any real number $$t > 0$$, the Chebyshev's inequality states that, for a wide class of unimodal probability distributions: $$Pr(|y-\overline{y}| \ge t\sigma) \le \dfrac{1}{t^2}$$.

Taking $$t=\dfrac{|y-\overline{y}|}{\sigma}$$, and assuming $$t > 1$$, the Chebyshev’s inequality for an observation $$y$$ becomes: $$P(|y - \overline{y}|=t) = \dfrac{\sigma^2}{|y-\overline{y}|}$$. The reciprocal of this probability is used for under-sampling1 the most frequent cases. Extreme valued or rare cases have higher probabilities of selection, whereas the most frequent cases are likely to be discarded. Still, frequent cases have a small chance of being selected (controlled via the sp parameter) in case few rare instances were observed.

## Parameters¶

• regressor (base.Regressor)

The regression model that will receive the biased sample.

• sp (float) – defaults to 0.15

Second chance probability. Even if an example is not initially selected for training, it still has a small chance of being selected in case the number of rare case observed so far is small.

• seed (int) – defaults to None

Random seed to support reproducibility.

## Examples¶

>>> from river import datasets
>>> from river import evaluate
>>> from river import imblearn
>>> from river import metrics
>>> from river import preprocessing
>>> from river import rules

>>> model = (
...     preprocessing.StandardScaler() |
...     imblearn.ChebyshevUnderSampler(
...         regressor=rules.AMRules(
...             n_min=50, delta=0.01,
...         ),
...         seed=42
...     )
... )

>>> evaluate.progressive_val_score(
...     datasets.TrumpApproval(),
...     model,
...     metrics.MAE(),
...     print_every=500
... )
 MAE: 1.787162
[1,000] MAE: 1.515711
MAE: 1.515236


## Methods¶

learn_one

Fits to a set of features x and a real-valued target y.

Parameters

• x
• y
• kwargs

Returns

self

predict_one

Predict the output of features x.

Parameters

• x

Returns

The prediction.

1. Aminian, Ehsan, Rita P. Ribeiro, and João Gama. "Chebyshev approaches for imbalanced data streams regression models." Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery 35.6 (2021): 2389-2466.